"Paste an interesting phrase from your article to show it under the picture as a quote.communications, De-packaging, e-beam microscopy, Embed"
For an embedded system on a circuit board, physical attacks can be launched by
using probes to eavesdrop on inter-component communications. However, for a
system-on-chip, sophisticated microprobing techniques become necessary. The
first step in such attacks is de-packaging. De-packaging involves removal of the
chip package by dissolving the resin covering the silicon using fuming acid. The
next step involves layout reconstruction using a systematic combination of
microscopy and invasive removal of covering layers. During layout
reconstruction, the internals of the chip can be inferred at various granularities.
While higher-level architectural structures within the chip such as data and
address buses, memory and processor boundaries, etc., can be extracted with
little effort, detailed views of lower-level structures such as the instruction
decoder and ALU in a processor, ROM cells, etc., can also be obtained. Finally,
techniques such as manual microprobing or e-beam microscopy are typically
used to observe the values on the buses and interfaces of the components in
a de-packaged chip